By: Dr. Syeda Arzinda Fatima

hyperglycemia-cover

Hyperglycemia means high blood sugar level. When diabetes is poorly managed blood glucose level remains high and it can lead to various complications of diabetes.

What are the causes?

  1. Inadequate insulin dose
  2. Less exercise
  3. Diet is more than what is required
  4. Some ongoing illness like cold, flu can increase glucose level due to stress.
  5. Mental stress like family conflicts, school or job tensions

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms of hyperglycemia include:

  1. Increased thirst
  2. Increased urination
  3. Tiredness, exhaustion

How to diagnose?

  1. Urine glucose is present
  2. Blood glucose level is high, fasting > 120mg/dl, and random > 150mg/dl

How to manage?

If your blood sugar is high, you should try to bring it down by following steps:

  1. Exercise ( avoid exercise if ketones are high)
  2. Reducing meal portions and calories intake
  3. Increasing dose of diabetes medicine or insulin

What are the consequences?

If your blood sugar remains persistently high it can lead to:

  1. Ketoacidosis, when glucose cannot be utilized, fats are burned for energy and lead to production of ketones. Ketoacidosis can lead to coma
  2. Hyperglycemic coma, sometimes in elderly patients, in the absence of ketones, hyperglycemia leads to extreme dehydration and coma.
  3. In the long run hyperglycemia will lead to diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy.