Hyperglycemia means high blood sugar level. When diabetes is poorly managed blood glucose level remains high and it can lead to various complications of diabetes.
What are the causes?
- Inadequate insulin dose
- Less exercise
- Diet is more than what is required
- Some ongoing illness like cold, flu can increase glucose level due to stress.
- Mental stress like family conflicts, school or job tensions
What are the symptoms?
Symptoms of hyperglycemia include:
- Increased thirst
- Increased urination
- Tiredness, exhaustion
How to diagnose?
- Urine glucose is present
- Blood glucose level is high, fasting > 120mg/dl, and random > 150mg/dl
How to manage?
If your blood sugar is high, you should try to bring it down by following steps:
- Exercise ( avoid exercise if ketones are high)
- Reducing meal portions and calories intake
- Increasing dose of diabetes medicine or insulin
What are the consequences?
If your blood sugar remains persistently high it can lead to:
- Ketoacidosis, when glucose cannot be utilized, fats are burned for energy and lead to production of ketones. Ketoacidosis can lead to coma
- Hyperglycemic coma, sometimes in elderly patients, in the absence of ketones, hyperglycemia leads to extreme dehydration and coma.
- In the long run hyperglycemia will lead to diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy.